How to Eat Xiaolongxia, China’s Favorite Crayfish

By That's Shanghai, May 3, 2024

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Every year, with the slightest hint of sunshine, you'll see buckets of crayfish on every Chinese street corner, luring in herds of hungry patrons.

A seasonal specialty, summer in China is simply not complete without at least one crayfish – or xiaolongxia – dinner.

But, before you get cracking, there are a few things you'll need to know...

1. Ditch the Gloves

Crayfish (xiaolongxia) in Shanghai
Image by That’s Shanghai

There is no way around it – cracking open a crustacean is messy business. Don’t bother with the disposable gloves they give you, all you’re doing is postponing the inevitable; your fingers will get messy, regardless.

Are you afraid of having shellfish residue on your hands the rest of the night? That’s what soap and water are for, folks. If the restaurant doesn’t supply that in the restroom, you’re in the wrong place (it means the cooks probably don’t have anywhere to wash their hands either).

2. Pick the Right Ones to Eat

How to Properly Eat Xiaolongxia, Shanghai's Favorite Crayfish
Image by That’s Shanghai

There is a serious grapple factor with this food. So, naturally, the bigger ones are better. And they make the hassle more rewarding.

As the weather gets warmer, these critters get bigger. So, as we hit the hottest summer months, they’ll be in peak season.

Eat only the crayfish whose tails have curled up under their bodies. A straight tail usually inidicates it was dead before it ever reached the pot.

Another indicator is mushy tail meat; eat only tail meat that is firm and springy, like lobster.

3. Remove the Shell

Shelling xiaolongxia is a seemingly simple process, but people often get it wrong!

First, flex the tail a few times. This attenuates the connective material in the shell segments and makes the tail easier to peel.

Then, holding the tail in your good hand and the carapace in the other, remove the tail with a gentle twisting motion.

Veterans at this point will usually de-vein the crustacean by gently wiggling the tail flaps and pulling it out the back. 

How to Properly Eat Xiaolongxia, Shanghai's Favorite Crayfish
Image by That’s Shanghai

It’s a procedure that takes a certain amount of finesse to perfect, so we recommend you start snapping the shell segments off the tail and then removing the vein.

And give it a dip in the sauce for extra flavor...

Xiaolongxia crayfish in Shanghai
Image by That’s Shanghai

4. Suck the Head... or Don’t

How to Properly Eat Xiaolongxia, Shanghai's Favorite Crayfish
Image by That’s Shanghai

Why would anyone suck out the yellowish-brown goop from inside the carapace? Because it’s delicious! 

It’s rich in fat and absorbs all the flavor from the broth the crayfish is boiled in. It’s like eating xiaolongxia concentrate. 

That said, tomalley – as the goop is often called – sometimes contains potent neurotoxins that cause a host of unpleasant symptoms like tingly digits, slurred speech, blurred vision and – in severe cases – death.

It’s nothing inherent in the crustacean itself; it’s just a question of microbe populations in the water. 

We couldn’t find any local regulatory body to advise us on this issue, nor would we trust one if we could. 

Officially, we advise you to not suck the head. Unofficially, we’ve sucked many a crayfish head and without incident.  

5. Drink!

How to Properly Eat Xiaolongxia (Crayfish)
Image by That’s Shanghai

What do you drink with xiaolongxia?

Beer! Ice-cold beer!

What’s the matter with you?


[Cover picture by That's Shanghai]

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